In Florida, the state constitution provides that medical records are private and protected from discovery by the state. In order to obtain a defendant’s medical records, the state must prove that the records are relevant to the case. The state is not permitted to subpoena a defendant’s medical records at its own discretion.
In a case near Jacksonville, Florida, there was a motor vehicle crash, and the driver of the vehicle that caused the crash fled the scene. The police developed evidence that the defendant was the driver who caused the crash and fled the scene. They determined he had a suspended license. He was charged with felonies for hit and run and driving with a suspended license and causing a serious injury. The state learned that the defendant went to the hospital after the crash. The state tried to get the defendant’s medical records from the hospital to determine if he was impaired at the time of the crash. Toxicology records would likely indicate whether the defendant had alcohol or drugs in his system.
The criminal defense lawyer objected to the request for the defendant’s medical records arguing that medical records are private under the Florida constitution, and they were irrelevant to the pending charges as the defendant was not charged with DUI (driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs). Initially, the court ruled that the state could get the defendant’s medical records because they could be used to impeach the defendant. The criminal defense attorney appealed and won. The appellate court ruled that to overcome the right to privacy, the state must prove the medical records are relevant to an ongoing investigation or case. The state must show a nexus between the records and a material issue in the case. Because the state did not have evidence of a DUI, and the defendant was not charged with DUI, his medical records were not relevant to the case and could not be subpoenaed by the state.
Medical records could be used for impeachment. For instance, if a person was impaired by alcohol or drugs at the time of the crime, his ability to remember the incident might be compromised which could be used against him in court if and when he testified. However, because the state did not have any evidence that the defendant was impaired, the state could not access his medical records. The state must either show the medical records are relevant to the case or that the defendant was impaired so his testimony would be questionable. Since the state could not show either, the appellate court prevented the state from obtaining the defendant’s medical records.